[计算机基础]计算机数据的存储方式([fundamentals of Computer] storage mode of computer data)

计算机只能识别二进制,计算机中数据的最小单位是二进制的一位数,简称为位,英文为 bit。一个比特只能表示两种状态,即 0 或 1,两个比特就能表示四种状态,即 00、10、01、11。对于人们平时用得字母、数字、符号只需要用 8 位二进制数进行编码就能将它们区分开来。因此,将 8 位二进制数称作“字节”,英文为 Byte,它是计算机存储和运算的基本单位。

计算机数据的最小单位是 bit,也就是一位二进制数,计算机存储和运算的基本单位是 Byte,也就是 8 位二进制数,即 8 bit。

在计算机内部的数据传送过程中,数据通常是按字节的整数倍传送的,将计算机一次能同时传送数据的位数称为字长。字长是由CPU本身的硬件结构所决定的,它与数据总线的数目是对应的。不同的计算机系统内的字长是不同的。计算机中常用的字长有 8 位、16 位、32 位、64 位。

字长是由计算机的 CPU 决定的,一个字长可以代表2个字节,也就是可以一次性传送16 bit 的数据;也可以代表4个字节,也就是可以一次性传送 32 bit 的数据。

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The computer can only recognize binary. The minimum unit of data in the computer is the single digit of binary, which is called bit for short and bit in English. One bit can only represent two states, namely 0 or 1, and two bits can represent four states, namely 00, 10, 01 and 11. For letters, numbers and symbols that people usually use, they can be distinguished only by coding with 8-bit binary numbers. Therefore, the 8-bit binary number is called “byte”, which is the basic unit of computer storage and operation.

The minimum unit of computer data is bit, that is, a binary number. The basic unit of computer storage and operation is byte, that is, an 8-bit binary number, that is, 8 bits.

In the process of data transmission within the computer, data is usually transmitted by an integer multiple of bytes. The number of bits that the computer can transmit data at the same time is called word length. The word length is determined by the hardware structure of the CPU itself, which corresponds to the number of data buses. The word length is different in different computer systems. The commonly used word lengths in computers are 8 bits, 16 bits, 32 bits and 64 bits.

The word length is determined by the CPU of the computer. A word length can represent 2 bytes, that is, 16 bit data can be transmitted at one time; It can also represent 4 bytes, that is, 32-bit data can be transmitted at one time.